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    Extension: Find the best contractor for your project


    Do you want to create extra space outdoors? But don’t you see moving? Then choose an extension. On this page you will find more information about the costs of an extension, the types and you can read more about the different parts of an extension.

    Construction prices

    An extension increases your living space and increases the value of your home. On average, an extension of 3 meters deep by 5 meters wide costs €16,000 to €25,000. The price strongly depends on the construction method. Do you opt for a prefab or custom construction? View the table for the average prices.

    Type of extensionCosts of prefab construction Costs of prefab construction
    Default€16,000 – €20,000€19,000 – €23,000
    Classic/Modern€18,000 – €22,000€21,000 – €25,000

    Extension or extension

    Construction and extension are terms that are often confused. When building an extension, a separate space is created, such as a garage or utility room. An extension provides an enlargement of an already existing space. The costs of an extension or extension are very similar.               

    Custom or Prefab

    Do you want to have the extension installed as soon as possible? Then choose a prefab construction. Do you want to personalize your extension? Then opt for a custom construction.

    Prefab construction

    Do you want as little disruption as possible from a renovation in and around your house? Then opt for a prefab extension. A prefab extension is quickly installed. It is built in a workshop or factory. This ensures that it is installed within 1 day. A prefab extension cannot be completely adapted to your wishes. However, there are many varieties available. Do you have specific wishes? Then opt for a custom construction.


    The custom construction and finishing of the extension is built at your home. Construction will take longer than installing a prefab extension. In addition, the price of a custom construction is higher. With a custom construction you know for sure that your construction wishes are fulfilled.

    Wooden extension

    A wooden extension is cheaper than a masonry extension. This is due to the light frame. The foundation and building construction need not be as strong. A wooden extension is also available as a prefab extension. Do you want a unique wooden extension that gives your home a rural look? Then opt for customization.

    Bay window

    Do you want to give your house more charm? Then choose a bay window. A bay window is a closed extension of a facade. Bay windows bring more light into the room by allowing the facade to protrude 1 to 1.5 meters outwards. Bay windows can be found at both the front and back of the house. Keep in mind that you need a permit to build a bay window at the front of the house. View the table for bay window prices and dimensions.

    Bay window widthBay window depthTotal average costs (including labor and VAT)
    3 meters1 meter€ 4,300
    3 meters1.5 meters€ 6.300
    4 meters1 meter€ 5,600
    4 meters1.5 meters€ 8,400
    5 meters1 meter€ 7,000
    5 meters1.5 meters€ 10,500

    The construction process of an extension

    This is probably the first and last time you will have an extension installed. You will therefore be faced with many choices. It is important to maintain an overview during the entire building process. Below you will find the step by step planning for the realization of your extension.

     Step 1 – Preparation

    Prepare yourself well for construction. Think and sketch what your extension will look like. Check with the municipality whether you are allowed to expand and what the rules are. Discuss with the neighbours what they think about the extension. They have the right to object.

    Think about how big your building needs to be. Do you want a prefab or custom construction? What material is the frame made of? And do you like having extra light in your extension? Then choose to have a skylight installed. Later in this article we will zoom in on various attachments.

    Step 2 – Architect

    Do you have specific wishes for your extension? Then hire an architect. You will receive a tailor-made design for your situation. Ask your architects for examples of extensions. That way you get new insights. Do you have any special wishes? Then the contractor will take the measurements.

    Step 3 – Request quotes

    Request quotes from various contractors. Compare quotes on price, call-out costs, quality marks, warranty, reviews and delivery time. You can save a lot of money by comparing quotes. Choose the contractor that suits you best.

    Step 4 – Permit

    Applying for a permit from your municipality can take up to 3 months. In some cases it is also necessary to apply for a demolition and environmental permit. Applying for a permit is not always necessary. Ask your municipality for the current rules. Later in this article we will zoom in further on permits.

    Step 5 – Financing

    Financing an extension with your own money is fine. Isn’t that so easy? Then see if it is possible to finance the construction by means of a mortgage. It is quite possible that you; can withdraw money from your current mortgage, take out a second mortgage or convert your mortgage. 

    Step 6 – Contract

    Is the financing in place? Then conclude a contract with your architect and contractor. It is important that agreements made are on paper. This way there are no misunderstandings during construction.

    Step 7 – Planning

    Your contractor will make a plan. It is important that you keep an eye on things. This way you are aware of any delays or problems.

    Step 8 – Build

    When designs have been made, permits have been received and agreements have been laid down in a contract, it is time for construction. The duration of construction differs per type of construction and contractor. Do you opt for a prefab extension? Then it is possible that construction will be completed within 7 days. A custom construction takes an average of 2 to 6 weeks.

    Step 9 – Delivery

    Carefully examine the extension upon completion. Check the entire construction together with the contractor. Have all the jobs listed in the quote been completed? Now is the time to make agreements with the contractor. If the extension is completely to your liking, it is time to enjoy your new living space.

    Types of construction
    Types of construction

    Types of construction

    Do you already know how you are going to expand your house? An extension provides more space in your living room or offers space for an extra large kitchen. Keep in mind that with a kitchen extension many pipes have to be moved. Do you want more light in your home? Then go for a glass conservatory .

    Placing an extension is a large project that can sometimes take several weeks. First of all, the foundation will be take placed. Then the specialist will break open the facade and build the new walls. The new facade finds its new place and the roof closes the construction. Read on for more information about different parts of an extension.


    A foundation ensures that walls do not crack and the extension does not sag. Based on the type of soil under your house a choice is made for the type of foundation. Does the soil consist of clay and peat? The weight of the extension will then rest on piles. Is your house on a sandy bottom? The foundation will then consist of concrete.

    The price of the foundation depends on the type of foundation and the size. On average, a foundation costs € 2,000 to € 4,000.

    Windows in your construction

    The most commonly used materials for frames are plastic, wood and aluminium. Plastic has a long lifespan of an average of 50 years. In addition, this type of frame is very maintenance -friendly. Hardwood frames last an average of 40 to 75 years. Softwood frames last an average of 15 to 25 years. Wooden frames require more maintenance, a new coat of paint is need every few years. Aluminium windows last an average of 40 years. The windows require little to no maintenance. View the table for differences between the frames.

    Plastic framesWooden window framesAluminium frames
    Value for money++++ ++
    Maintenance++ + +++
    Security (burglary-resistant)++ ++++++
    Style and color (the frame type has a versatile design)+ ++ +++
    Environmentally friendly++ +++ ++
    about 50 years
    -Hardwood frames: 40 – 75 years
    -Softwood frames 15 – 25 years
    about 40 years

    Glass for your extension

    Use good insulating glass in your extension to save on energy bills. Choose the popular HR++ glass for good insulation. This type of glass has the best price-quality ratio. HR+++ insulates even better, but has higher price per square meter. View the prices per type of glass per square meter and the annual cost savings.

    Type of glassAverage price per m2 incl. VAT and assemblyAnnual cost savings for a home with 20m2 of glass
    insulating glass€ 115€ 140
    HR+€ 125€ 220
    HR++€ 130€ 260
    HR+++€ 170€ 280

    Roofing for extension

    The most common roofing material on an extension is bitumen. This type of roofing costs an average of € 45 per square meter. The bitumen roofing lasts on average 20 years.

    Would you like a greener roofing? Then choose to cover your roof with mosses, succulents or ornamental grass. A green roof is easy to realize. Make sure that the substrate consists of EPDM or bitumen. In addition, the angle of inclination should not exceed 45 degrees.



    Do you like natural light in your home? Then choose to install a skylight. A dome provides a lot of light. An opening skylight also provides a lot of fresh air in your home. You have the choice to opt for insect screens and electric control with a folding dome. The electrical control makes it possible to open the dome at the push of a button. Opt for an anti-burglary grille so that crooks can’t get in as easily. View the table for dome prices.

    DescriptionAverage costs
    Standard Dome€100 to €200
    Ventilating dome€400 to €500
    Anti burglary grid€200
    insect screens€100 to €150
    Electrical control€300

    Extension options

    Would you like electricity in your extension? And do you want to get it right? The contractor will charge additional costs for this. View the table below for prices.

    OptionAverage price
    Central heating (incl. radiator)€1,000
    carpentry work€300

    Construction permit for extension

    Before you start designing, take a good look at the building regulations in your municipality. It is not always necessary to apply for a construction permit . In some situations you may build without a permit.

    Placing an extension at the back of your house is often exempt from permits. Provided that the extension is not deeper than 4 meters and higher than 5 meters. Use the permit check of the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment. An extension to the front or side of your home almost always requires a permit. Please note: always ask your municipality for the current rules. Rules may differ per municipality.

    Tip: Sometimes you need a permit for other activities. For example, you may need a permit to cut down a tree or build a driveway.

    In some cases you are obliged to report demolition work to your municipality. In cases of asbestos removal or more than 10 cubic meters of demolition waste, you must notify the municipality. The municipality may require a demolition permit. The municipality is obliged to do this on the basis of zoning plans or the Monuments Act. 

    Do you live close to water? Please contact the Water Board in your region. Even if you build without a permit, it is still possible that permission from the Water Board is require.

    Construction specialists
    Construction specialists

    Construction specialits for extension

    Designing and building an extension is a specialist job. Specialists will help you with this. Based on your wishes, a beautiful extension will be built that increases the living space.

    Quality marks specialists

    Do you want to be sure that you are dealing with good contractor? Contractors with this quality mark have at least 2 years of experiences and have been checked for quotation, delivery and creditworthiness. In addition, these specialists are in possession of the correct diploma and insurance. Did something go wrong during constructions? And can’t you agree with the contractor? We helps you to solve the problem. An independent body will look into the problem and provide advice.

    Construction tips

    • Building material – Building an extension costs an average of 25,000 kilos of building material. On average, the price of this material is €10,000. Do you want to save money? If it is possible to order material yourself, so you save a lot of money.
    • Contractos – Request different quotes from contractors. They calculate the costs for your construction. In addition to the price, you can also compare the call-out costs, quality marks, reviews, delivery time and guarantees.

    In the test: New self-service tool rental in Bern

    Since I like to make something out of wood in between or repair objects (instead of throwing them away), I was asked whether I would like Bosch Switzerland the pilot project would like to test and write about it in Bern for a fee. Of course, I said yes, after all, I think the idea is great, because I’ve dealt more and more with the topic of sustainability and zero waste in recent months.


    So I went to Bern to test the tool rental. While I was still on the train, I reserved a cordless jigsaw on the website and received a message that the device had been reserved for me for an hour. Should I decide otherwise, the reservation will expire and there will be no costs for me.

    When I arrived in Bern, I started looking for the rental station. Thanks to the map on the website, I found the job quickly, people familiar with the area would have arrived before me.


    When I stood in front of the rental station, I scanned the QR code that was printed on it, signed up, and entered my profile My loan and clicked on the jigsaw Pick up. After a security message, which I confirmed, door number 8 opened as if by magic and I was able to remove the blue box. I then closed the door by hand and confirmed via the website that I had shut the door again. That was easy!

    In the box

    After that, of course, I had to open the box and inspect the contents. Everything was there, the jigsaw and the accessories looked perfect and new. I was also amazed at the processing quality of the blue machine and the accessories: the difference between the green DIY line (some of which I have at home in the workshop) and the blue professional line is immediately noticeable and visible. The weight of the jigsaw alone gave an idea that the inner workings are designed for greater and longer loads. We are certainly also suitable for a tool rental.


    Since all my friends in Bern and the surrounding area had nothing to saw up at the moment, I packed everything up again, stood in front of the rental box and dialed in my account Return the device out and the door opened again as if by magic. I closed the door, paid the daily fee of CHF 15 and went home. That worked great! Here is a quick video of how I bring the box back:

    It’s that easy. Pick up and return at the touch of a button in the online account

    What i liked

    • Independent and smooth loan, also suitable for spontaneous handicraft ideas
    • Centrally located, certainly perfect for everyone in Bern and the surrounding area
    • High quality tool, great condition including operating instructions, two charged batteries and accessories
    • Ease of use of the website
    • Fair prices (between CHF 5–50 / 24 h, most devices are around CHF 15/24 h)

    What else I wish for

    • More precise (hourly) billing instead of just every 24 hours
    • Clearer instructions for the first loan (but it’s amazingly easy once you’ve done it)
    • Connection of other means of payment such as Apple Pay / Twint
    • More rental boxes in other cities (Aarau first!)
    • Rental service with delivery by post


    Overall, a very successful pilot project from Bosch Switzerland. On the one hand, it just doesn’t always make sense that everyone has a cordless screwdriver at home that they only need 2 minutes a year. On the other hand, this also gives you the opportunity to test a device from the professional line first if you want to buy one. For me as a do-it-yourselfer and hobbyist, it is definitely a very welcome solution. If the pilot project in Bern is used successfully, Bosch Switzerland will also consider opening rental boxes at other locations.

    So Bärner Meitschis and Giele: diligently lends equipment so that the rest of Switzerland can also use this cool service.

    And what do you think about the pilot project? Would you make use of it if such a rental box were in your area?

    Design Tips For Exposed Aggregate Concrete


    Decorative concreters are getting very popular nowadays, and you can find their multitude of applications. Exposed aggregate concrete has become a popular choice amongst many homeowners. It is used for driveways, walkways, and sidewalks. These are durable, require lesser maintenance. Adding driveways and walkways enhance the value of the property and adds to the aesthetic appeal. Exposed concrete is a popular choice amongst homeowners. These are versatile, durable, and long-lasting. The skid resistance features make it popular for sidewalks, patios, and pool decks. It is one of the easiest and fastest methods of providing a fine finishing.

    exposed concrete aggregate

    What is exposed aggregate concrete?

    The exposed aggregate concrete mix of gravel, glass chips, and other materials give it a unique look. All these materials are mixed into wet concrete and then used. Once the concrete has dried up, you will see the final texture. There are many types of decorative concrete layers are available that are appropriate for heavy traffic areas.

     How to choose the right concreter 

    One of the first things you should know is that the concreter will use different materials to create a unique look. You always have the option of choosing the one the aggregate to create the right mix. Versatility is one of the key reasons that make exposed aggregate concrete a perfect choice is that it is highly durable, customizable, and easy to maintain. Concrete designs are decorated with beautiful color and texture variants. It ensures to provide a long-lasting construction with less maintenance.

    A good contractor will comprehend your requirement and will easily create the final look the way you want, but it all boils down to choosing the one who is the best for your work.

    Look for an experienced contractor

    Contractors expertise in different fields, so choose one as per the requirement related to the construction work. Few contractors deal with small-scale work and some like to deal with large-scale work.   Above all, they must know the right way to create a concrete mix and then create the desired look. Some concreters have the expertise in using exposed aggregate concrete to create the desired pattern and look. The contractor should be flexible with the design and pattern options.

    Speak to the contractor-

    You must finalize the contractor only after speaking to them and looking after their portfolio. Once you know that the contractor can provide you with the best work, you can give them the go-ahead. Also, you must do all the research before making the final call. You should be clear about what kind of pattern you want to create, and based on it, and you can discuss your requirement with the contractor to create a beautiful-looking sidewalk or walkways.

    exposed concrete aggregate

    Discuss the pricing-

    You must always discuss the entire project’s cost. The final pricing may vary based on the type of design or texture you are looking for. Always look for the best and cost-effective work. Low price estimates may not provide the best job or services.  Once you know the details and have the commercials with you, you can make the final decision easily.

    Concluding thoughts

    This was the basic information about Exposed Aggregate Concrete, and if you too are willing to get one for your place, find an experienced and professional contractor. Concrete has the inherent property of strength and durability. If you are looking for the best option in the market, you can consider adding Exposed Aggregate Concrete. These are highly versatile, durable, customizable, and long-lasting. So, if you want to make your property look aesthetically appealing, then you can consider adding Exposed aggregate concrete to your walkways or driveways.

    How Long Can Students Wait for Australia to Reopen?


    The Australia Letter is a weekly newsletter from our Australia bureau. Sign up to get it by email.

    When Hemshree Pandey got the news that Australia was opening its borders to international students and visa holders on Dec. 1, she quit her job and booked her flight.

    Stuck in India since the start of the pandemic, she thought she’d finally be able to see her fiancé in Australia again and start studying for her master’s degree. For a week, she was overjoyed. The paralyzing uncertainty she’d been living with since March 2020 — over how long Australia’s borders would be shut, how long she was willing to put her life on hold, what she could do at home in India knowing she might have to drop it at any second — was coming to an end, she thought.

    Then the Australian government pushed the border reopening back at least two weeks because of the new Omicron coronavirus variant.

    “I ended up crying when I got the news,” Ms. Pandey, 26, said. “We finally got a date. We were so relieved. And now suddenly it’s like: now what?”

    The emergence of the new variant has plunged everyone into another exhausting round of uncertainty. Holiday plans and trips to visit family interstate or overseas are suddenly up in the air as we hold our breath and wait.

    Making plans for the future when a new coronavirus variant could come at any moment is difficult. But it’s been particularly so for those who’ve been stuck between countries, waiting to start or resume their lives in Australia.

    As countries tighten border controls, and with the discovery of new cases in Australia who haven’t traveled overseas, international students like Ms. Pandey fear that the two-week ban could be extended, plunging them back into limbo.

    “I have lost sleep, I have lost appetite, I don’t know what I should do,” she said.

    Does she keep waiting, potentially for two weeks, potentially for months? She’s already spent months doing research on Australia, choosing the right degree to study, applying for admission and for a visa, on top of the 20 months she’s been waiting. Her fiancé has already spent years in Australia and started building a life for both of them.

    “Should we just wait and keep waiting? In that case, I lose out on time. I’m already 26. I need to do my master’s, build my career,” she said. “If not, if we move to another country, how much more expenses and how much more processes would we have to go through? We’d have to start all over again.”

    Unwilling to study online because of significant time differences, often inadequate internet infrastructure and wanting their education to be worth the tens of thousands of dollars they’re paying, scores of international students who have put their lives on hold waiting to come to Australia are making difficult decisions about what to do in an ever-changing situation.

    Janees Abbas, 22, a student from Pakistan waiting to start studying for his construction management degree in Victoria, has paid $5,800 to first book a flight to Australia on Dec. 1, and then change it to Dec. 23.

    After two years of what he characterizes as being strung along by state governments’ aborted plans for pilot programs to bring students back, and noncommittal statements by the federal government, he’s grown cynical about any positive border news.

    He didn’t tell anyone around him about his imminent departure, not wanting to deal with questions if he couldn’t go. And he’s pretty sure the borders are going to stay closed and he’s wasting his money, he said, but he’s pressing ahead on the off chance that Australia opens its borders for a week or two after Dec. 15 but then closes them again as the flood of arrivals brings more cases.

    “Let’s say they open on Dec. 15, and they close after a week and I’ve booked a flight in January,” he said. “I’ll have the regret that I didn’t try my level best to go to Australia.”

    An Indian student, Dhanashree Marge, who is studying at the Queensland University of Technology, has set herself a deadline: If the borders don’t open on Dec. 15, she says, she’s going to withdraw and switch to a university in a country with open borders.

    Throughout the pandemic, “I thought ‘be a little more patient.’ Wait for Australia,” she said. But she’s getting to the end of her rope.

    “It’s been two years. I cannot wait anymore,” she said.

    The Best Movies and TV Shows New to Netflix, Amazon and Stan in Australia in December


    Every month, streaming services in Australia add a new batch of movies and TV shows to its library. Here are our picks for December.

    DEC. 1

    Adapted by “The Piano” writer-director Jane Campion from Thomas Savage’s 1967 novel, “The Power of the Dog” stars Benedict Cumberbatch as a 1920s Montana rancher named Phil Burbank — a man with an aristocratic background and a thick sadistic streak. Jesse Plemons plays Phil’s much gentler brother George, who marries a local widow named Rose (Kirsten Dunst) and then disrupts the social dynamic on the Burbank spread when he invites Rose’s studious teenage son Peter (Kodi Smit-McPhee) for a visit. Intriguing and unpredictable, “The Power of the Dog” is a handsome-looking and difficult to define neo-western, exploring the sometimes suffocating expectations of traditional gender roles.

    DEC. 6

    Film buffs ought to find this creative series of video essays entertaining and challenging. Produced by thoughtful cinephiles (including the accomplished director David Fincher), “Voir” explores different aspects of movies and movie culture, including such subjects as: the sometimes limiting visual design of modern animation; the perverse appeal of antiheroes; and the thirst for broader cultural representation. The episodes combine new footage, old clips and probing interviews, skillfully edited into sharp commentaries on the transformative power of cinema.

    DEC. 10

    At once a parody of cruddy old ’80s and ’90s cartoons and a serialized story exploring the profound emptiness of some children’s entertainment, “Saturday Morning All Star Hits!” (a.k.a. “SMASH!”) stars the quirky comedian Kyle Mooney in a dual role as the shaggy twin brother hosts of an old network TV animation bloc. Mooney also cocreated the series with the adult animation veteran Ben Jones. Working with their team of writers and illustrators, Mooney and company riff on the vacuity of many fondly remembered kiddie shows.

    DEC. 17

    The hit TV adaptation of the Polish author Andrzej Sapkowski’s “The Witcher” novels and short stories returns for a second season, continuing the story of the monster-hunter Geralt (Henry Cavill) and the various mercenaries and courtly agents who have crossed paths with him through his decades of service. This show’s narrative structure can get pretty intricate — with intertwining story lines connecting different timelines — but the main attractions remain the spectacular sword-and-sorcery action sequences and Cavill’s performance as a skilled warrior and magician burdened by his own talents.

    DEC. 24

    Written and directed by “The Big Short” and “Vice” filmmaker Adam McKay, the black comedy “Don’t Look Up” stars Jennifer Lawrence and Leonardo DiCaprio as a pair of undistinguished scientists who discover that a comet is about to strike the Earth, obliterating life as we know it. The all-star cast includes Meryl Streep as a vain and shortsighted U.S. president, Mark Rylance as a quietly cocky tech guru, and Tyler Perry and Cate Blanchett as a pair of shallow, popular TV talk show hosts. These characters — along with the skeptical general public — block the heroes at every turn, in a movie that satirizes society’s unwillingness to acknowledge and tackle its toughest problems.

    DEC. 31

    Olivia Colman and Jessie Buckley both shine in the writer-director Maggie Gyllenhaal’s adaptation of the Elena Ferrante novel “The Lost Daughter.” The actresses play the same character at different ages: Leda Caruso, a brilliant scholar and mother who has sometimes felt resentful of her parental responsibilities. The movie mostly takes place at an island resort, where the vacationing older Leda keeps getting distracted by an overbearing family of tourists — including a bewitching young mom named Nina (Dakota Johnson). As the story flashes back to Leda’s past, Gyllenhaal and company effectively dramatize the ambiguous feelings a lot of parents have toward the obligations that can get in the way of living freely.

    Also arriving: “Lost in Space” Season 3 (Dec. 1), “Single All the Way” (Dec. 2), “The Great British Baking Show: Holidays” Season 3 (Dec. 3), “Mixtape” (Dec. 3), “Money Heist” Season 5, Volume 2 (Dec. 3), “Shaun the Sheep: The Flight Before Christmas” (Dec. 3), “Asakusa Kid” (Dec. 9), “Back to the Outback” (Dec. 10), “How to Ruin Christmas” Season 2 (Dec. 10), “The Unforgivable” (Dec. 10), “The Future Diary” (Dec. 14), “Emily in Paris” Season 2 (Dec. 22), “Kitz” (Dec. 30), “Cobra Kai” Season 4 (Dec. 31), “Stay Close” (Dec. 31).

    DEC. 1

    A screwball comedy twist on the traditional holiday romance, “Christmas on the Farm” stars Poppy Montgomery as Emmy, a struggling New York writer who lands a huge book deal by passing off her late mother’s journals about life in rural Queensland as her own autobiography. When her publisher asks to spend an old-fashioned Australian Christmas with her new star author, Emmy has to scramble to pretend she’s a traditionalist farmer’s wife — a ruse complicated by the arrival of the publisher’s attractive son.

    DEC. 8

    This semi-true crime story stars Olivia Colman and David Thewlis as the married couple Susan and Christopher Edwards, who lived a long time with a dark secret: that Susan killed her parents, and that she and Christopher lived off the pension checks of the corpses buried in the backyard. In “Landscapers,” the writer Ed Sinclair and the director Will Sharpe use their antiheroes’ love of movies to inject a little stylistic flair into what is ultimately a strange kind of mystery, delving into the reasons two lovers felt obliged to turn to violence and chicanery.

    DEC. 17

    The comedian Will Forte and his former “Saturday Night Live” collaborators Jorma Taccone and John Solomon revive Forte’s cult favorite character MacGruber, a bumbling special agent modeled after the hero of the TV series “MacGyver” (but much, much sillier). MacGruber debuted in a string of “SNL” sketches that kept finding inventive new ways to rework the same punchline: showing how a momentary distraction could lead to utter disaster. Like the 2010 movie version, expect this new serialized “MacGruber” to mock — with love — over-the-top spy thrillers.

    Though it is classified as science-fiction, this mini-series adaptation of Emily St. John Mandel’s 2014 novel may strike some as a ripped-from-the-headlines drama. Set in the years before, during and after a devastating pandemic, “Station Eleven” primarily follows Kirsten (Mackenzie Davis), a member of a traveling theater troupe trying to keep culture alive in the makeshift settlements the plague’s survivors established. While tracking Kirsten’s journey through this sometimes-terrifying new world, the show flashes back to the way things used to be, telling ironic stories about troubled characters who had no idea how bad things were about to get.

    DEC. 19

    The late hip-hop artist Christopher “Biggie Smalls” Wallace — A.K.A. “the Notorious B.I.G.” — was a pioneering rapper whose songs about growing up in a crime-ridden neighborhood influenced a generation of musicians. As this documentary makes clear though, there was more to Wallace than just his pulpy crime stories. With the help from interviews with Wallace’s mother, wife, friends and colleagues, the director Mark Ford paints a picture of a man of many interests, who was killed before he had the chance to fully prove that his work could fuse different genres and ideas into a new sound.

    Also arriving: “Positive” Season 1 (Dec. 2), “Zoey’s Extraordinary Christmas” (Dec. 2), “Berlin Station” Seasons 1-3 (Dec. 3), “Pen15” Season 2, Part 2 (Dec. 4), “The Defence” Season 2 (Dec. 10), “High” Season 1 (Dec. 10), “Billionaire Scoundrel” Season 1 (Dec. 14), “Amsterdam Undercover” Season 1 (Dec. 17), “Claws” Season 4 (Dec. 20), “Dragons: The Nine Realms” Season 1 (Dec. 24), “Bump” Season 2 (Dec. 26), “Perfect Places” Season 3 (Dec. 28).

    DEC. 10

    The phenomenal Riz Ahmed stars in this tricky science-fiction thriller, playing a Marine who becomes convinced that the Earth has been invaded by evil alien insects that only he seems able to detect. The director Michael Pearce (who also co-wrote the script with Joe Barton) keeps the action in “Encounter” low to the ground. He also keeps the matter of the hero’s fragile mental state mostly ambiguous, making this movie into the story of a loving father determined to save his young sons from a threat that may not exist.

    Though it has never been a huge hit, the science-fiction series “The Expanse” — based on James S.A. Corey’s novels — is such a favorite among genre connoisseurs that it was saved from cancellation back in 2018, just after Season 3. The upcoming Season 6 is being touted as the show’s finale; but there are still lots of stories to be told within this future universe, where human colonists scattered throughout the solar system (and beyond) are perpetually on the brink of war. Still, until “The Expanse” gets rescued again, fans should savor what could be the last days of one of TV’s most exciting and well-plotted space sagas.

    DEC. 21

    Nicole Kidman plays the groundbreaking comedian Lucille Ball, and Javier Bardem plays her husband and business partner Desi Arnaz in the backstage drama “Being the Ricardos,” set mostly during one week in the production of the 1950s sitcom “I Love Lucy.” The writer-director Aaron Sorkin — who has tread this kind of ground before with his TV series “Sports Night” and “Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip” — uses a fragment of Ball’s life story as a way into a larger consideration of old-fashioned American showbiz, locked into an era marked by Communist witch-hunts and a staunchly paternalistic social order.

    Also arriving: “Harlem” (Dec. 3), “The Ferragnez” (Dec. 9), “With Love” (Dec. 17), “Yearly Departed” (Dec. 23).

    Laying a Natural Stone Terrace Correctly

    Most terrace coverings , whether made of concrete slabs or natural stone , have a very long life expectancy. However, the effects of the weather and external dirt make the surfaces look unsightly after just a few years. In addition, if the terrace was not set up properly, undermining can create unsightly joints, cracks or bulges on the surface that has just been laid.

    The most common cause of such damage is insufficiently compacted subsoil. Therefore, you should either create a floor slab reinforced with steel mesh or a sub-structure made of crushed stone, gravel and sand compacted in several layers. It is also important to properly seal stone in order to achieve a consistent surface quality.

    Find out what else you need to consider if you want to design your garden with natural stone.

    Individual garden design with natural stone elements

    Experience the fascination of natural stone in your own garden. The diverse natural product is easy to process and has a unique character thanks to its individual shape and color. In addition, a large number of different surface finishes, such as rough or scratched, are commercially available.

    There are no limits to your imagination when designing a garden with natural stone: whether a colorfully overgrown natural stone wall, a winding stone path, a romantic bench under the tree or individual stepping stones for special flower beds. With natural stone elements you create structure that naturally fits into the overall concept of the garden integrated.

    Different laying options give your garden a special charm and become a place that invites you to relax with its natural atmosphere.

    Sandstone and limestone: natural stone for a natural aesthetic

    Many hobby gardeners appreciate the individual character of natural stones. This is not an industrially manufactured mass product, but a natural product that is shaped by the history of its creation. No artificial building material can compete with the variety of colors and shapes of natural stone. The unique pieces often become even more beautiful over the years if they are properly sealed and cared for.

    Whether you choose sandstone or limestone is a matter of taste. Both natural products have a long service life and can easily be sanded down properly and restored to their original state in the event that discoloration from UV light, rain or dirt has formed.

    In addition, depending on your taste, the surface can be processed in a modern way, so that creative use of natural stone in the garden is encouraged.

    Another positive aspect of sandstones and limestones is their environmental friendliness. The stones contain neither color nor additives and the energy consumption in their manufacture is comparatively low. Natural stone is particularly durable, resistant and easy to care for, making it ideal for garden design.

    Your own natural stone terrace: It all depends on the right subsurface

    An overgrown natural stone wall

    As with the laying of concrete slabs or paving stones, when creating a terrace made of natural stone, the subsurface should be laid up in several layers and solidified well with the help of a vibrating plate .

    It is particularly important to ensure that not only the terrace area but the entire substructure is laid out with a slope. This is the only way to ensure that rainwater does not collect on the terrace or even run off in the direction of the house and cause great damage over the long term.

    Step by step: Build your own terrace out of natural stone

    Laying natural stone

    The work begins with targeted preparation and initial planning of possible natural stone combinations.

    After the bedding made of fine chippings or sand has been drawn off with a straight edge and unevenness has been removed. the natural stone slabs are laid.

    If you use irregularly shaped quarry stone slabs you need a lot of time and patience. you always have to find the right stone piece by piece and fit it into the bond.

    For this you will later be rewarded with an individual and unique terrace.

    It is important that the panels are clean sufficiently before laying so the mortar it is still to be use can also adhere to the panels. You can either lay the slabs in the bare sand bedding or use a so-called natural stone laying mortar for a more stable terrace surface.

    The mortar is distributed evenly in stages for two to three natural stone slabs on the surface to be paved and roughly leveled off.

    Tip: Mix only as much mortar as you can use within one to two hours.

    Always start paving at the edge

    Always start paving at the edge of the terrace. It is important to ensure that the stone is fully embedded in the mortar and it is aligned using a rubber hammer and a spirit level. The mortar that oozes out afterwards can be carefully wiped off and at the same time used to seal the joints between the stones. This is how you work your way from the edge of the surface piece by piece towards the center.

    When laying on the bare sand bed, sprinkle a mixture of sand and cement between the wide joints. After the installation work has completed, the surface is carefully swept and then covered with water. The previously introduced mixture hardens and gives the terrace its strength.

    Work your way towards the center brick by brick

    Paving natural stone

    To prevent weeds from developing on the terrace, you can also apply grout. It is important to ensure that you only apply the grout with a spatula or pour it in liquefied.

    Should some mortar get on the stone surface. it will remove immediately with water and a sponge, otherwise hardened mortar residues will impair the later appearance of the natural stone.

    Protect the terrace from unfavorable weather conditions for a few more days and do not step on to the fresh surface until the next day when everything has dried out well. Now you can look forward to relaxing times on the self-built terrace made of natural stone.

    Processing: seal natural stone

    Natural stone is becoming increasingly popular as a floor covering because many homeowners like the natural stones better than conventional floor coverings for the terrace,balcony or outside area. In order for them to remain as beautiful as nature, they must particularly cared for and protected. One of the possibilities is sealing the natural stones. This measure protects the stone from water and dirt. We recommend a sealer that penetrates the pores and has a hardly color-intensifying effect.

    Caution : The seal forms a layer on the material that prevents breath ability. Therefore, these agents must not used on all stones. This can lead to frost damage, especially during the cold months.

    If no color-intensifying effect is require on the surface, we recommend pre-sealing with a 50% concentration. Mix the agent 1: 1 with water. For health reasons, do not use products that contain chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC).

    Tip: When impregnated, the agent penetrates the stone and reacts there.

    Garden Fences – 8 Tips For Build Fences Yourself

    Which material you choose for a garden fences has above all to do with what type of fence you want to set up and, of course, how the fence you are going to build should look like. The most famous fence is the chain link fence . But we will show you how many different fences there are and what a large selection you have.

    Garden fences are ideal ways to not only protect your property from unwelcome visitors and looks, but also an excellent design element that can enhance your own garden beautifully.

    Fences are great versatile and come in many different designs.

    1. Garden fences in general

    In general, garden fences are, first of all, transportable demarcations between your own and someone else’s property. A garden fences can either be bought and set up immediately, or garden fences can be made in a blacksmith’s shop, a carpenter’s shop or a locksmith’s shop.

    Alternatively, you can build your fence without using ready-made elements, although building a fence yourself does not have to be cheaper.

    After the fence is set up, it offers protection for people and animals and in the latter case is also called a gate or pen. At the same time, a garden fences can also provide protection from the wind and privacy and, above all, keeps small children away from the street.

    Garden fences can also be beautifully colored and colorful with appropriate plants . That is why they are also often used as climbing aids for climbing plants, so that on the one hand the plants can grow up on them, but on the other hand the fence and the entire garden are beautified at the same time.

    Tip: Precisely because garden fences are also part of the garden design, you should make sure that the fence construction is also integrated into the overall style of the house and does not stand out unintentionally because it does not fit into the rest of the ambience of the property.

    2. Regulations for the garden fences

    Often you can already get a lot of tips and fence ideas from your property neighbors. However, if you want to safely avoid the famous and literal quarrel about the garden fences with your neighbor, you should check with your local authority before installing your fence.

    Whether there are regulations on the height of the fence or the design of the garden fences. The distance to the street or the sidewalk could also be prescribed, for example.

    Because the requirements of the individual federal states can be very different , we only list the most general regulations for the garden fences at this point, with which you can, however, avoid a lot of trouble.

    General rules for garden fences:

    • A certain material (e.g. wooden fence) may be prescribed for the garden fences so that it fits into the overall picture of the village and there are no excessive deviations.
    • The height of the fence can be fixed, whereby a maximum limit is usually given (be careful with privacy fences).
    • If you set up a wire fence, it often has to be planted with bushes to reduce the risk of injury.
    • Garden fences must generally be set up in a stable and safe manner.
    • If you set up the garden fences on the border to another property, you should simply ask your neighbors what the enclosure should look like and come to an agreement with them.
    • If this agreement on the construction of the fence is not reached, any customary fencing is generally permitted within the framework of the development plan.
    • Only stand a fence on your own property and neither on the neighbour’s property nor on the border line itself.
    • Lateral fence posts must always face your own property so that the neighbor can only see the smooth side of the fence.
    • A hedge must have the same distance that is prescribed for trees and bushes, because otherwise the neighbor can request the implementation.

    3. Metal fences and wooden fences juxtaposed

    Do not be put off by these regulations, as a fence builder you normally have a lot of leeway and room to develop. Especially when you don’t just put a fence in front of the neighbor’s nose, but rather talk to him beforehand about the type and height of the DIY fence. Put your agreement in writing for both of you.

    Anyone who has clarified this legal aspect in the first step can choose between a wide variety of materials for the fence, which offer different design options.

    You should always ask yourself what purposes the garden fences should fulfill, which type fits best with the rest of the house and the garden design and also how long it should actually last.

    We present garden fences ideas made from the two most commonly used materials. But first, a few general pros and cons to metal and wooden fences when you consider what you will use to build your own fence.

    4. Metal Garden fences

    Anyone who thinks metal garden fences are only for Fort Knox is wrong and probably underestimates the wonderful variety of metal designs .

    Although they are significantly more expensive than wooden fences due to their production, they are also more stable and also easy to care for and have a long service life.

    If you want to build a metal garden fences yourself, start with foundation posts to which metal fence elements or horizontal bars are attached. The bars in turn hold vertical bars made of profile steel, perforted sheet metal or a stainless steel mesh.

    Prefabricated metal fences are mostly made of steel, stainless steel or aluminum. Unfortunately, there is always a risk of rusting with untreated steel .

    Even with an anti-rust primer and additional top coats, it takes a maximum of ten years for metal garden fences to start rusting. This cannot happen with hot-dip galvanizing of the metal, which is why it is best to use hot-dip galvanized material.

    Anyone who immediately resorts to stainless steel is choosing a weather-resistant and therefore maintenance-free material at the same time.

    Even if you can leave hot-dip galvanized garden fences “raw”, you should consider painting them. The color not only beautifies the fence, but also increases the protection against corrosion. However, the color has to be renewed every now and then.

    Cleaning tip : Every two years you should spray the metal fence with clear water, without any cleaning or abrasive agents. This avoids the formation of moss and algae, which can otherwise be caused by dust or rainwater.

    5. Wooden Garden fences

    The most classic variant is the wooden garden fences. However, it should always be made of weather-resistant wood.

    The local larch is particularly suitable as a material – especially if you are building your own wooden fence. Other well-suited types are the sweet chestnut, oak, or pine.

    If you want to use flexible wood, you should choose spruce or willow.

    To build a garden fence yourself, you need wood or ready-made elements. The latter are often cheaper than do-it-yourself wood.

    Tips : Softwoods must always be protected against the effects of the weather by painting or high-pressure impregnation. Do not set wooden posts directly in the ground or in concrete. it is better to concrete post shoes or metal posts.

    5.1. Paling

    A picket fence is easy to build yourself. It consists of fence posts with cross members and straight wooden slats.

    In this type of wooden fence, the slats are attached to the cross members at regular intervals.

    Not every wood needs to be painted or treated. You can save yourself this step by using weather-resistant wood, whereby the suitable types of wood acquire a silver-gray patina over time.

    For environmental reasons, however, you should use resistant, regional woods when building a wooden fence.

    5.2. Hunter Garden Fences

    The hunter fence is one of the traditional fence ideas. It is also called a scissor fence or a cross fence .

    This type of wooden fence is usually 80 cm high and consists of laths that are pointed at the top and are attached to two crossbars next to each other in an X-shape.

    It is regularly glazed or oiled in order to keep it as long as possible. You can also get finished elements pressure impregnated.

    Hunting fences are also very well suited for cottage gardens, because annual flowers (nasturtiums, sweet peas, etc.) tend to rank high on them.

    5.3. Picket Garden Fences

    The picket fence is also called a lance fence because of its tips .

    If you want to build this natural fence yourself, vertically and attach them to cross braces.

    It is better to set fence posts and use them to erect the fence.

    Because the individual palisades have a round or transverse cross-section and are provided with points at the top, they can be very dangerous due to the risk of impaling. It is therefore not surprising that the Romans already used picket fences for defense .

    5.4. Plank Garden Fences

    A plank fence is particularly opaque and yet looks very natural. However, a lot of wood is needed to build this type of wooden fence.

    The individual planks or slats are staggered on one or both sides. The latter is more wind permeable.

    However, such a fence must be anchored very well, as a large wind load acts on the fence during storms.

    An alternative is a privacy fence made from prefabricated privacy screens.

    5.5. Wicker Garden Fences

    A wicker fence consists of tightly interwoven willow branches that are sometimes treated with oil.

    Because the wicker fences are so tightly woven, they are ideal as privacy screens.

    They are available as ready-made elements, but you can also make wickerwork yourself. This, however, requires large amounts of willow branches.

    There are even so-called living pasture fences. Freshly cut pasture canes are placed in the ground, where they grow and emerge.

    They are intertwined with each other and further braided in the desired shape step by step as they grow.

    Tip: The wicker fence is particularly suitable for people who want their garden to look natural.

    6. Build a wooden Garden Fence yourself – more ideas

    There are numerous other garden fences ideas. When it comes to making a wooden fence yourself. for example, build a picket fence or slab fence yourself.

    In both cases, you first need posts at regular (suitable) intervals . The stakes are then attached to these (are available as a roll; wooden bars that are crimped with wire) or slab boards, which are very cheap.

    If you only screw two horizontal slab boards between each two posts, a so-called bonanza fence is created. The simplest natural wooden fence to build yourself.

    When it comes to a temporary fence, you can consider building a fence yourself using pallets . It will last a few years and damaged pallets are easy to replace. You can also use pallets if you want to build a wooden safety fence yourself-simply attach two or three pallets to posts on top of each other.

    Using the same basic principle, you can also build a fence yourself from branches . Simply place transverse battens between the posts and nail branches to them vertically.

    In general: To build a garden fences yourself, you need ideas, skills, materials and tools. If a certain material is available cheaply, base your ideas on it.

    7. Cat Garden Fences

    A cat fence is intended to either prevent a beloved pet from going on a discovery tour and thus put themselves in danger or to keep unwanted animal guests from their own garden.

    Because a normal chain link fence usually has “gaps” that are too large or can be easily climbed over, cat fences are kept particularly close-meshed and are also particularly tear-resistant .

    There is also an electrified cat fence, whereby, like a willow fence, harmless electrical surges prevent the pet from escaping.

    You can make a simple fence yourself for your cats by attaching a cat protection net between posts or walls. If there is already a garden fences in place, simply add an extension to the posts and attach the net to it.

    8. Garden gate

    A garden gate is a wonderful extension for garden fences . Regardless of whether you have a garden fences made of wood or metal; You can also get your garden gate in these materials.

    You can also choose between garden gates in different designs: simple, single -leaf passages, a double-leaf gate entrance or even a three-leaf garden gate , which is a combination of a through gate and an entrance gate .

    The width varies between 0.80 m and 1.5 m per wing. In terms of height, there is even a margin of 0.8 m to 2 m. The wider a sash, the heavier it is and the more stable the posts and brackets have to be.

    If you choose a gate system as the garden gate, it is equipped with a drive and is operated either manually or electronically. In addition, a garden gate can be equipped with a swing gate drive or a sliding gate drive, whereby most swing gates can also be made as sliding gates.

    The lock set can easily be attached on the left as well as on the right.

    Why Do You Need Opt For A Dust Extraction System?


    Level of particulate matters in the air is a matter of concern for both under developed and developing countries. The particulate matters in the air can be measured by Air Quality Index and PM level. The dust particulate matters cause severe harm to the respiratory system of the human body. Asthma, emphysema and other respiratory troubles can occur as the particulate dust matters reside inside the lungs. Not only lungs but also eyes and vision can be affected by these dust particles. Industrial pollution, pollution from vehicles and dusts generated due to everyday activities of humans are responsible for high level of PM. Employees who work in factories under different industrial sectors are directly affected by these dust particles. There are lots of dusts that are generated in these factories and surround the entire environment of the work place. In order to maintain a healthy and safe work environment in the factories it is essential to perform dust extraction. Dust extraction system is widely used to reduce emissions in factories and work places. The emission comes out from exhaust via ducts and stacks. Dust extraction system is installed at the vent of the production process and on the systems used for material handling.

    dust extraction
    Dust extraction system

    What is the working principle of a dust extraction system?

    Belt conveyor transfer points, Screen venting, crush venting etc. are the points inside a factory where from dust is generated. These points are connected to the inlet of bag filter by means of duct work. Suction hoods and motorized or manual dampers in the ducting system are there in all the points that helps in emitting the dust.  To make sure that the optimum suction in the process of dust extraction is done in each point, suction dampers are provided. Dampers act like balancers in the process of dust extraction. Small duct network connects these with the main duct header. Finally, the main duct header is connected to the bag filter.

    The process of operation of a dust extraction system

    The process involved in dust extraction is explained point wise in the following:

    • Air containing dust particles enter the bag filter under considerable pressure or suction.
    • Dust laden air travels through the filter bags. Dust particles are retained on the bag’s surface.
    • Air which is cleaned makes its way through filter bags to the plenum. Outlets of bag filters are created in this process and this happens due to the effect of suction which is created by the centrifugal ID fan.
    • Increased differential pressure is created between the clean and dirty air sides of the filter bag. This happens due to collection of dust on the outside part of the filter bags.
    • Sequential timer is needed that actuates the normally closed pulse valves at certain intervals which would lead to their opening.  Sequential timer is basically needed to control the differential pressure which is generated across the bag filter.
    • There occurs a rush of high-pressure air (about 5 to 7 bar g) for the time being and from the compressed air header the air flows to the blow tube. The air is then expelled in high velocity through ventures. This is called primary air flow.
    • Induction of secondary air flow occurs due to the passage of air from each venture.
    • Pressure on the clean side of the filter bag rises instantly due to combined effect of primary and secondary air flow. This causes the air to flow reversely which dislodges the dust.

    dust extraction
    Dust extraction system

    It is to be noted that in the process of dust extraction, you can also use electrostatic precipitators or you can go for scrubbers instead of bag filters.

    Therefore, to ascertain safety and health of your factory employees install an effective dust extraction system that would improve the wholesome environment of the workplace.

    Gastrointestinal Disease In Children – The Most Effective Home Remedies and Helpful Tips

    Parents know the situation: the phone rings, the kindergarten or school answers – your child should be picked up immediately. The reasons for this are not infrequently sudden vomiting and severe diarrheal. The so-called gastrointestinal flu not only occurs more frequently in the cold season, it is also one of the widespread diseases in summer, especially among children. So that your child will get well again quickly, in this guide we will inform you which tried and tested home remedies can be used to counteract it, but also which remedies from the pharmacy can be used to bring the stomach and intestines back into balance. You will also find out. what a gastrointestinal infection is, what processes take place in the body and when a doctor should be consulted.

    The best home remedies for children with diarrhea vomiting

    Even if the complaints usually only last for a short time, the health of the little patient should be restored quickly. And it is also a relief for the parents to know when their child is better. But which home remedies help when children suffer from a gastrointestinal infection and what should you watch out for?

    Increase your hydration and balance your salt deficit

    If your child’s disease progresses in the normal course from initial nausea to eruptive diarrhea, there are many helpful home remedies that you can use to combat the symptoms and help your child regain health.

    The top priority is: drink a lot!

    Make sure that your child drinks enough. Solid food should not be given in the first few hours after the onset of the disease; instead, regular and extensive drinking should be ensured. Are suitable:

    • Unsweetened tea: Chamomile, peppermint or fennel tea not only have a calming, but also an anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic effect.
    • Homemade blueberry tea : Take 2 teaspoons of dried (not fresh!) And ground blueberries and brew them with 150 ml of water and let the brew steep for about 10 to 15 minutes. Blueberry tea contains many tannins that protect the intestinal mucosa from bacterial attacks.
    • Still water: The minerals it contains have a positive effect on intestinal activities.
    • Diluted apple juice or juice spritzers

    Since many important salts are excreted in addition to water during a gastrointestinal infection, the electrolyte balance of the organism must also be taken into account.

    • Electrolyte solution: You can easily make your own electrolyte solution from 4 level teaspoons of sugar and one teaspoon of salt, mixed in one liter of water , which you can give your child spoon by spoon or mix with another drink. You will also find ready-made electrolyte mixtures, e.g. in powder form, in our range . These contain salts, minerals and glucose in an optimally balanced ratio. All products are already suitable for children in infancy and are also available with a taste, which can be particularly advantageous when administering the solution to children. The products are easy to use and also ideal for on the go.

    If your child refuses to drink, try giving the liquid by sips or spoons at short intervals. If the child does not want to drink at all, consult a doctor.

    Tip: Colorful straws may help stimulate your child’s desire to drink!

    Important: Offer your child tea if they drink it lukewarm, not hot. Water as well as juice spritzers must not contain carbon dioxide, because this irritates the stomach, which is already stressed, and rises again, which leads to renewed vomiting. You should therefore refrain from using the well-known home remedies pretzel sticks and cola with your child! That would be counterproductive for the child. Pretzel sticks contain a lot of sodium, but not the important electrolyte potassium. And the cola with its caffeine, the high sugar content and the carbonic acid stimulates the digestive activity even more.

    What to do with breastfeeding and bottle-fed children

    Breastfeeding children who are affected by a gastrointestinal infection should be laid on more often during this time in order to counteract a loss of fluid. If the child does not have enough strength to suckle, give them some liquid with a teaspoon. Instead of the usual baby milk, bottle-fed children should receive unsweetened tea or still water at room temperature. Here, too, you should use a teaspoon of fluids if the child is too weak to drink. Please refrain from giving baby milk, as this can lead to renewed vomiting.

    Appropriate nutrition for gastroenteritis

    Loss of appetite in the young patients at the onset of this disease is perfectly normal. But at some point a desire for food develops in order to regain strength. Most of the time, your child will find out on their own when their appetite has returned. Then it is advisable to start with a light diet that is gentle on the stomach.

    From carrot soup to apple grated: suitable meals for children with gastrointestinal infections

    carrot soup is particularly suitable for children to feed the stomach again. The famous recipe of the so-called Moro soup (named after its inventor, the pediatrician Ernst Moro) is ideal as a diarrhea-reducing diet. All that is needed is 500 grams of carrots, which are cooked in one liter of water. Subsequent pureeing and adding a pinch of salt guarantee the stomach little digestive work and supply the body with electrolytes and fluids. You can have your child eat the soup several times throughout the day.

    Grated apples (including peel) are also an unbeatable home remedy . The apple pulp is not only easy for the body to process and tastes good to the child, the apples also contain the plant substance pectin. The pectin acts as a liquid binder and also forms a protective layer on the intestinal mucosa , which makes it less vulnerable.

    mashed banana, on the other hand, is rich in minerals and is an excellent way of helping the body replenish its potassium stores.

    Constructive diet

    High-starch, binding foods that do not contain any fat are suitable for building up a further diet. Proven options are

    • potatoes
    • Rice or rice gruel, lightly salted
    • Pasta
    • zwieback
    • toast
    • Oat or rice gruel
    • White bread

    Avoid dairy, sweetened or fried foods, all of which are too challenging for the digestive system and aggravate diarrhea. On the other hand, you should be cautious about giving fatty foods, as fat stimulates digestion and thus again burdens the stomach and intestines. You can read more tips about an adequate diet for diarrhea in our advice article on home remedies for diarrhea .

    More tips that can be implemented quickly

    A hydration and salt intake adapted to the special circumstances as well as an equally gentle and invigorating diet are considered the number 1 home remedy for gastrointestinal diseases in children. What else can you do?


    Proven help with stomach aches and pinches is moist warmth . Regardless of whether it is a hot water bottle, heated grain pillow or a moist belly wrap – the warmth relaxes you. To increase the effect, place a damp washcloth between your stomach and the heat source. Warm, moist envelopes are also quickly prepared: Dip a cloth in warm water, wring it out well and place it on the patient’s tummy. Place a dry towel on the envelope, cover it well – done.

    Love, closeness and warmth

    When a child is sick, the best medicine is parental care and attention . Be there for your child and be open to their needs. A cooling cloth on the forehead in case of nausea, a spittoon in front of the bed or a spit guard on the bed are quickly prepared and show your child your concern. A new picture book or a radio play will drive away the boredom while you are bedridden. And cuddling, if possible, is beneficial for your child’s health. Perhaps you can lie down on the couch together or you can prepare a small area of ​​mattresses on the floor of the children’s room. Cuddling together not only provides warmth, but also comforts the child.

    Prevent further infections

    To protect the health of you, your family and those around you, it is best to immediately take some necessary hygiene measures . To prevent the disease from spreading, wash and disinfect your hands frequently, especially if you come into contact with infectious waste. Ideally, wear gloves and even a face mask when cleaning the child. At home, clean doorknobs, the bathroom, and most intensely, the toilet. Disinfection for hands and surfaces, disposable gloves and other hygiene products can be found in our online shop. Make sure you also think about the extended environment: If children have a contagious infection, it is advisable to inform the daycare center or school as soon as possible so that measures against infection can be taken there too.

    Tip: If even small children get used to washing their hands after using the toilet, the risk of smear infection is reduced.

    When should you take the child to the doctor?

    As unpleasant and unsavory as gastrointestinal infections are, they usually heal themselves. The duration and intensity of the symptoms depend on the causative agent. But the younger the child, the more dangerous gastroenteritis can become.

    Please note: In some cases a doctor’s visit is mandatory. If vomiting and diarrhea occur at the same time and persist with undiminished violence, one should

    • with an infant after 6 hours at the latest,
    • with a toddler under three years of age within 12 hours,
    • and with an older child after a day of observation

    see a doctor. If additional symptoms occur during the course of the disease, such as high fever, blood in the stool or dehydration as a result of the massive loss of fluid, a specialist must also be consulted immediately.

    A visit to the doctor is also advisable if:

    • very little urine is excreted and the child avoids drinking
    • has watery stools more than 6 times a day
    • complains of severe abdominal pain or indicates that he has severe abdominal pain
    • As a parent, you are very worried. Consult a doctor if you are unsure and it is better to have your child checked again. This also gives you as parents a security that you ultimately convey to your child.

    Dehydration: Recognize the danger

    The risk of dehydration is particularly high in children. The small bodies lose a lot of fluids through the excretions. It is therefore imperative to be able to spot the signs.

    • Dry mouth
    • White skin
    • Apathy, drowsiness
    • Deep breathing through your mouth
    • headache
    • fever
    • No tear fluid
    • In babies: sunken fontanel

    If your child has these symptoms frequently, there is an acute emergency and the child needs medical treatment immediately! So don’t let it get that far in the first place and pay close attention to the fluid balance of the little patient.

    Over-the-counter remedies for gastrointestinal infections for children

    The most common home remedies are usually always available, so help is available quickly at home. But it can happen that complaints arise during a vacation trip or an excursion. Home remedies are rarely available in these cases. In these cases, you can use over-the-counter products from your online pharmacy, which can also be used on babies and toddlers. 

    Excursus: What is a gastrointestinal infection?

    Gastrointestinal infections are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Because gastroenteritis can be triggered by a large number of highly infectious germs. In most cases, the cause of diarrhea is noro, rota or adenoviruses, but also bacteria (e.g. Campylobacter or Salmonella) are attackers. As a result of the penetration of these pathogens, the unpleasant symptoms of nausea, sudden vomiting and suddenly severe diarrhea, often accompanied by abdominal pain and cramps, occur . But just as suddenly as the disease strikes the body, it disappears again. As a rule, you will be symptom-free again after a few days.

    Important: The blame for diarrhea and vomiting at the same time can in rare cases also be parasites, with which you come into contact, for example, on vacation. In this case, the gastrointestinal complaints last for weeks and a doctor’s visit is urgently required. In summer, food poisoning from spoiled food is not unlikely, as this is characterized by the particularly short persistence of vomiting and diarrhea.

    What happens in the body with gastrointestinal flu?

    Once they have arrived in the digestive system, the pathogens begin to multiply and either attack the mucous membranes of the stomach and small intestine themselves or produce toxins which take over. The damaged stomach lining can no longer digest the food properly. The body responds by vomiting to protect itself and get rid of the intruders quickly. However, once the viruses or bacteria have established themselves in the intestine, the mucous membrane cells are damaged there too and the small intestine can no longer optimally absorb the food components, which are hardly digested anyway. As a result, there is a high salt concentration in the intestinal area. Now water is introduced into the intestine to compensate for the excessive electrolyte content. This creates the watery diarrhea,

    Why do children especially often suffer from vomiting diarrhea?

    Children are particularly prone to this type of diarrhea. The child’s gastrointestinal tract is more sensitive and therefore more susceptible to infectious germs.

    The pathogen is often infected by droplets or smear infections. The germs get there, for example, by hand-to-mouth transmission, for example when eating, into the organism. However, transmission through the finest droplets of saliva when speaking or coughing is also possible. The germs are highly contagious and usually have an incubation period of just a few hours to a few days. Contact with an infected playmate or forgetting to wash your hands before eating is enough to catch the disease. Once infected, the infected person remains a source of transmission for days or even weeks, which means that a gastrointestinal germ can proliferate in school or kindergarten. In this respect, it is normal for young children to develop gastrointestinal flu once or twice a year.


    Gastrointestinal infections are not uncommon in children and occur more often, especially in smaller children. But even with simple home remedies, you can quickly improve the situation. Adequate hydration is essential to avoid dehydration. Therefore, make sure that your child drinks enough or offer him the appropriate amount of fluids. If you are unsure, the symptoms persist over a long period of time or if you have a fever, please consult a doctor immediately.

    Removing Warts: How To Get Rid Of Warts?

    Almost all people discover a wart on their body at least once in their life or have several warts at once. In this article you will find out which remedy really helps against warts, which method or treatment is best for removing warts and what you should generally pay attention to when warts occur.

    What are warts? Definition, causes and occurrence

    Even if the word warts is often associated with large, dark bumps on the skin, which typically characterize some villains known from films or books, the term stands for far more skin changes that can differ greatly in shape, colour and expression.

    Usually warts are small benign skin changes that appear in different forms and in different parts of the body (sometimes all over the body). As a rule, warts are caused by viruses (especially human papillomaviruses, HPV for short) or due to infections, whereby the pathogens occur via smear infections or contact infections from person to person (e.g. when shaking hands or during sexual intercourse) or via external carriers (e.g. damp floors in the sauna, swimming pool or objects such as towels). As a result, small injuries in the skin or mucous membranes infect the upper layer of the skin and the skin can begin to grow. Thus, the question of whether warts are contagious can be answered with a clear “yes”. However, it is interesting

    Age warts arising from age spots, on the formation of which viruses have no influence, are an exception. These are probably due to the natural aging of the skin and an overall high level of exposure to UV rays.

    Occurrence and causes of warts: who does it affect?

    Every year up to 750,000 people in Germany contract a viral infection that can cause warts. Warts in particular often affect children and adolescents. But not everyone who becomes infected with the corresponding virus will definitely develop warts: Warts often occur primarily in people who sweat quickly, often have damp hands or feet and do not wear breathable clothing.

    In addition, the risk of developing warts is significantly higher in children and adolescents whose immune systems have not yet come into contact with the pathogens causing warts. But all other people who have a weak immune system or whose skin is irritated by diseases such as neurodermatitis, for example, can be more often affected by warts. In many cases, an unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. smoking) is also said to be responsible for the development of warts.

    Do warts cause pain?

    Most warts are benign skin changes that do not cause pain and regress on their own, so that no special treatment by a doctor is necessary. In principle, however, it is advisable to treat viral warts in order to avoid infection. In some cases, a wart can cause very severe pain that requires urgent treatment. Read more about this below.

    Typical spots for warts

    The places where warts appear depends on the type of wart and the cause. For example, warts can develop on the arms, on the forehead, on the cheeks, in the mouth area, on the feet, on the hands and in the genital area and can develop individually or in small groups.

    What types of warts are there?

    Warts come in a variety of forms. We have listed the most common types of warts below so that you can get the best possible overview.

    Barbed warts (vulgar warts)

    The barbed wart , also known as the vulgar wart , mostly occurs in children or adolescents. But adults who have circulatory disorders or who sweat very often and a lot often suffer from wart formation. The barbed wart typically appears on the nails, fingers, or face. The wart is initially very small, over time, pea-sized, very hard nodules form. These nodules take on a rough, calloused shape. This type of warts can spread in small groups all over the body by scratching the skin. The barbed wart also occurs when the immune system is weakened. Anyone suffering from neurodermatitis can cause the wart to spread over the whole body due to the intense itching.

    Flat warts (juvenile wart)

    The verruca plana (Juvenile wart) commonly occurs in adolescents or children, often more girls are affected than boys.

    This type of wart, which usually forms on the face, neck, shin or back of the hand, is transmitted through a smear infection – there is therefore an increased risk of infection in swimming pools or saunas. The flat wart is up to 5 millimeters round, very flat and can also be polygonal. It is soft and can look brown, yellow, or skin-colored.

    Plantar warts (sole or mosaic wart)

    Plantar warts usually develop on the foot, more precisely on the sole of the foot. Therefore, they are also called plantar nipples . This type of wart is also transmitted through a smear infection. Plantar warts are characterized by brown-black points. As the name suggests, they grow like thorns in the sole of the foot and can therefore be very painful as the weight of the body rests on the wart on the foot when walking. If the wart multiplies, a mosaic pattern develops on the skin or the sole of the foot, which is why this type of wart is sometimes also referred to as a mosaic wart.

    Genital wart

    The genital wart often forms in the genital area, on mucous membranes or in moist, warm skin folds. This type of wart can be transmitted to the partner during sexual intercourse. The genital wart occurs, among other things, in cases of vaginal inflammation, intestinal inflammation, urethritis, worm infestation or narrowing of the foreskin. But this type of wart can also be involved in cervical cancer and promote the development of this type of cancer. The genital wart is also called the genital wart and occurs locally. A flesh-colored nodule forms in the anal area or on the genital organs. By taking the contraceptive pill, the genital warts can be promoted. If the genital wart is infected with bacteria or fungi, it can be very itchy.

    Dellar warts

    Dell warts appear all over the body, but often on the fingers, hands, arms or the upper body. This type of wart is the size of a pea and has an indentation in the middle. Infection can occur via a smear infection or a contact infection. With this species, too, the risk of infection in swimming pools or saunas is very high.

    Important: do not scratch!

    Regardless of the type of wart and how you treat it, the following principle applies: Warts must not be scratched, as the viruses and infected cells can otherwise spread through the bleeding to other areas of the skin and promote the formation of further warts. Even if it is difficult, you should definitely resist any itching and use another means of treatment.

    Note: Warts must not be scratched open!

    How do you get rid of warts? Tips, Natural Home Remedies, and Treatment

    Most warts go away on their own, but it can also be a good idea to fight warts yourself or have a doctor remove them. In the following, we’ll give you various tips and natural home remedies that you can use to remove warts quickly, and show you different treatment options.

    Home remedies for warts

    Remove warts with apple cider vinegar

    It is often recommended to treat warts with apple cider vinegar. To do this, apple cider vinegar is applied to a cotton pad up to twice a day, rubbed into the wart and then masked off with a plaster. This should cause the wart to peel off and disappear after a while.

    Treat warts with garlic

    Garlic is also said to be good for warts. To do this, the wart should be rubbed with freshly cut garlic for several weeks. In addition, a thin slice of garlic can be tied to the wart overnight with a band-aid so that the juice from the garlic clove can penetrate the wart and fight the viruses.

    Remove warts with tape

    A common home remedy for warts is duct tape. What sounds unusual, it is too: The wart is masked off with a small piece of adhesive tape for just under a week. Keeping the tape on the skin will soak the wart. The top layer can then be removed relatively easily with a pumice stone or a file. Treated in this way, the wart disappears after a while – and without any pain!


    Whether the home remedies actually help against warts has not been scientifically proven. If you are unsure about which remedy to use to fight warts, if in doubt, it is better to trust the opinion of an expert.

    Remove warts at home

    Use of salicylic acid and lactic acid

    To remove warts without treatment at the doctor, you can use solutions containing salicylic acid or lactic acid, for example. It is used daily for several weeks on the affected areas of the skin. This will cause a thin layer to form on the wart and soften the skin. The next day, this film can be removed, including the top layer of the wart, if possible – you can use a file or a pumice stone to remove it. As a rule, this method is painless, but slight pain can only arise from filing and removing the top layer of skin. To protect the surrounding skin, it is best to apply a fatty cream or petroleum jelly to prevent the solution from damaging healthy areas of the skin.

    Alternatively, there are now plasters with salicylic or lactic acid that you can leave on the skin for a while to soften the skin.

    Our tip:

    Over-the-counter drugs for warts are also available in our online pharmacy – discover our wide range and find the best remedy for warts!

    Wart does not go away: when to see a doctor?

    If warts don’t go away on their own after a while, you should seek advice from an expert and trust your dermatologist. A doctor should be consulted, especially with warts in the genital area. You are in the best of hands with an experienced expert and can trust that they will help you to quickly remove the warts by choosing a suitable method.

    Remove warts by freezing

    One means your dermatologist can use to treat warts is freezing (cryotherapy). The wart is treated with liquid nitrogen, which is said to help destroy the affected cells in the upper layer of the skin and gradually make the warts go away. The application is usually carried out over a period of several weeks. Freezing is usually not very painful, but it can cause slight skin irritation. Like other treatment options, freezing requires patience.

    If this does not help, the dermatologist can prescribe additional products such as tinctures with 5-fluorouracil, which kill the viruses and fight the wart.

    Cut out the warts, ablate them with a laser or spoon

    In some cases it may be necessary to remove warts surgically, with a sharp spoon (curettage, for example with genital warts) or with a laser. This can be necessary, for example, if warts occur more frequently or grow heavily. Cutting out warts that have grown deep into the foot can sometimes leave deep wounds and temporarily cause severe pain.

    Bottom line: what remedies or home remedies are the best for getting rid of warts quickly?

    Freezing and the application of salicylic acid have been shown in studies to be the most effective remedies in the fight against warts. Although the application has to take place over several weeks, stubborn warts usually subside faster than without special help.

    Prevention of warts

    There are a few tips you can follow to avoid transmission of the HPV virus and prevent warts from developing.

    • Wash your hands regularly! Wash your hands regularly and maintain good physical hygiene. Wash your hands carefully, especially after touching warts on your feet or other parts of your body.
    • Dry off well! Always dry your hands and feet well after washing, showering, bathing and after visiting the sauna or swimming pool. If you ensure that your skin is dry (not dried out!) From head to toe, you reduce the likelihood of developing types of warts, which tend to develop in a moist environment.
    • Take care of your skin! By regularly caring for your skin and supplying it with valuable moisture using suitable creams or lotions, you can prevent the skin from drying out and cracking. In this way you reduce the risk of viruses getting into the skin and causing warts.
    • No walking barefoot in public places! Whenever possible, avoid walking barefoot in public places such as swimming pools, gyms, saunas, or changing rooms. Instead, always protect your feet with sandals, flip flops or rubber shoes to prevent virus transmission.
    • Own clothes, shoes and cosmetics! Do not wear other people’s clothes or shoes and only use your own cosmetics and personal care products. Another person’s clothing, cosmetics, and toiletries could contain viruses that can spread to you and develop warts as a result.
    • Stay Active and Eat Healthy! Pay attention to your physical fitness, exercise regularly and spend a lot of time outdoors in the fresh air. You should also eat healthily and make sure you get enough vitamins and minerals to strengthen your immune system. A strong immune system is the best protection against unwanted warts.